Nursing Care Plan for Cerebral Vascular Accident / Stroke

Nursing Diagnosis for CVA Cerebral Vascular Accident
Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA) or Stroke is caused by the interruption of the blood supply to the brain, usually because a blood vessel bursts or is blocked by a clot. This cuts off the supply of oxygen and nutrients, causing damage to the brain tissue.

Many things can go wrong and cause the disruption of the blood supply to the brain.  However, the most common culprits are a ruptured artery, or a blood clot that blocks the flow of blood.  It is commonly called CVA which is a major cause of death. It also causes serious problems in the way that the body functions.

There are two types of CVA. They are:
  • Hemorrhagic CVA – This occurs when the there is a ruptured artery that leaks blood to the brain.
  • Ischemic CVA – This happens when there is a blood clot in the arteries that blocks the transfer of oxygenated blood to the brain tissue.
You may ask what the risk factors are. This depends on the age of the affected individual and the part of the brain whose blood supply has been interfered with. In the most severe cases of stroke, death has been known to occur within a short period of time. However, in most cases, the deterioration of one’s health is gradual with many tell-tale signs.

There is more to Cerebral Vascular Accident than meets the eye. For example, did you know that there are three main causes of CVA that are known to doctors? They are:
  • Cerebral hemorrhage
  • Cerebral embolism
  • Cerebral thrombosis
Risk factors for narrowed blood vessels in the brain are the same as those that cause narrowing blood vessels in the heart and heart attack (myocardial infarction). These risk factors include:
  •     high blood pressure (hypertension),
  •     high cholesterol,
  •     diabetes, and
  •     smoking.
The most common symptom of a stroke is sudden weakness or numbness of the face, arm or leg, most often on one side of the body. Other symptoms include: confusion, difficulty speaking or understanding speech; difficulty seeing with one or both eyes; difficulty walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination; severe headache with no known cause; fainting or unconsciousness.

Management of Stroke
To treat acute conditions need to be considered critical factors as follows:
1. Trying to stabilize vital signs with:
  • Maintaining a patent airway suctioning of mucus that is done frequently, oxygenation, if you need to do tracheostomy, help breathing.
  • Controlling blood pressure is based on the patient's condition, including efforts to improve hypotension and hypertension.
3. Trying to find and correct cardiac arrhythmias.
4. Treating bladder, as far as possible do not wear a catheter.
5. Placing the patient in the proper position, it should be done as soon as possible the patient should be shifted position every 2 hours and performed passive motion exercises.

Nursing Care Plan for Cerebral Vascular Accident / Stroke

Nursing Priority for Cerebral Vascular  Accident (CVA) or Stroke

1. Increasing cerebral perfusion and oxygenation adequate.
2. Preventing and minimizing complications and permanent disability.
3. Helping patients to fulfill their daily needs.
4. Provide support to the process of coping mechanisms and integrating the changes in self-concept.
5. Provide information about disease process, prognosis, treatment and rehabilitation needs.

The Goal for Cerebral Vascular Accident nursing (CVA) or Stroke
1. Increased cerebral function and decrease neurological deficits.
2. Prevent / minimize complications.
3. Daily needs are met either by himself or others.
4. Positive coping mechanisms and to plan for the state after illness
5. Understand the process of disease and prognosis.

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