Different Types of Nursing

The following contains some different types of nursing, plus a description of each, including a general overview of the daily tasks involved.

General Nursing

These professionals typically have a strong foundational knowledge in basic nursing care. They can practice in many different types of healthcare settings, including hospitals, clinics, and nursing homes. Their daily tasks involve providing stabilization care, managing stress, administering medications, and provide emergency support as needed.

Nurse Educator

Nurse educators have received advanced and special education in order to not only become registered nurses, but teachers, as well. Some may choose to be full-time educators, while others only take this position in a part time role. Typically, these professionals work in teaching hospitals and nursing schools in a general or specialized area of study. Even if an individual chooses to become a full time educator, they still need to keep current with the latest nursing methods and newest technology.

Occupational Health Nurse

OHNs work with employers and companies to design and develop health and safety programs. Their job is to understand safety and prevention methods in relation to hazardous exposure and workers' illnesses and injuries. These individuals are also typically in charge of emergency preparedness, employee treatment and follow-up, and return-to-work issues.

Intensive/Critical Care Nursing

The role of these nurses is to care for the most unstable and critically ill patients, typically found in intensive care units and emergency departments. Intensive care nurses usually specialize in treating babies, children, or adults. On a day-to-day basis, these professionals will analyze patients in critical condition, give intensive therapy, and maintain life support systems. This career is typically fast-paced and involves a complex working environment.

Diabetes Nursing

These nurses work primarily with patients who have diabetes. Most of their time will be spent helping patients monitor their blood sugar and giving nutritional therapy. These nurses will also be well-versed in the proper diet, exercise, and lifestyle those with diabetes should lead. Some diabetes nurses choose to become diabetes educators, or diabetes nurse consultants.

Nursing Management for Social Isolation

Social isolation is a state where an individual has decreased or even not at all able to interact with others around them. Patients may feel rejected, not accepted, lonely, and unable to foster meaningful relationships with others.

Social isolation is a lonely condition is expressed by the individual and perceived as being caused by others and as a negative situation that threatens. With characteristics: living alone in the room, inability to communicate, withdrawal, lack of eye contact. Discrepancies or immaturity interests and activities with the development or the age. Preoccupation with his own thoughts, repetition, no meaningful action. Expressing feelings of rejection or loneliness caused by others. Experience different feelings with others, feel uncomfortable with people.

Behavior on the client include:
  • Less spontaneous.
  • Apathetic (not / ignore environment).
  • Moody facial expression.
  • Do not want to take care of himself and not pay attention to personal hygiene.
  • Reduction or absence of verbal communication.
  • No or less conscious environment.
  • Intake disturbed eating and drinking.
  • Urinary retention and vases.
  • Decreased activity.
  • Lack of self-esteem.

Stress triggers, generally include stressful life events such as loss, which affects an individual's ability to relate to others and cause anxiety.

Stress triggers, can be grouped into two categories, among others:
1) sociocultural stressors
Stress is caused by social and cultural communities. Events or changes in the socio-cultural life sparked trouble for dealing with others and how to behave.
2) psychological stressors
Stress is caused due to prolonged anxiety and the individual does not have the ability to cope.

Coping Mechanisms

Defense mechanism that is often used on each social disorder are:
1) regression, the progress or retreat behavior.
2) projection, the weakness and lack of self-posed to others.
3) repression, which override impulse or painful memories.
4) isolation, which shy away from interaction with the outside environment.


Assessment in patients with social isolation can be done through interviews and observations:
  1. The Patient tells feeling lonely or rejected by others.
  2. The patient does not feel safe being with other people.
  3. The patient said that does not mean the relationship with others.
  4. The Patient feel slow and tired of spending time.
  5. The patient is not able to concentrate and make decisions.
  6. The patient feel worthless.
  7. The patient not sure it can continue living.

Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions for Social Isolation

Social isolation: Withdrawn

General purpose: Clients can interact with other people.

Specific purpose:

1. Patients can develop a trusting relationship.
2. Patients can be aware of the causes of social isolation.
3. Patients can interact with other people.

  1. Patients are able to communicate well with the nurses.
  2. Patients can mention the causes and signs of withdrawing.
  3. Patients are able to interact with caregivers, family, and other patients.


1. Fostering a trusting relationship:
  • Say hello to the patient, each time interacting with patients.
  • Acquainted with the patient: introduce full name and the name of the nurse call, and ask the patient's full name and nickname patients.
  • Ask the patient's feelings and complaints at this time.
  • Create a care contract: what nurses will do with the patient, how long it will be done and where the implementation of activities.
  • Explain that the nurses will keep confidential the information obtained for the purposes of therapy.
  • Show empathy to the patient at all times.
  • Fulfill the basic needs of the patient if possible.
2. Helping patients to know the cause of social isolation by means of:
  • Ask the patient habit, about the habits of interacting with others.
  • Ask causes the patient does not want to interact with others.
3. Helping the patient to recognize the benefits associated with others by sharing the benefits if the patient has a lot of friends.

4. Help patients recognize losses not related to the others, with:
  • Discuss the disadvantages, if the patient just shut up and do not get along with others.
  • Explain the effect of social isolation on the physical health of the patient.
5. Provide the opportunity to express their feelings can help reduce stress and causes feelings withdraw.


Therapeutic group activities: socialization
Therapeutic group activities: socialization is an effort to facilitate the client's ability to socialize with a number of social relationship problems.

1. The client is able to introduce their own self-
2. The client is able to get acquainted with members of the group
3. The client is able to converse with members of the group
4. The client is able to convey and discuss the topic conversation
5. The client is able to convey and discuss personal problems to others
6. The client is able to work together in a group socialization game
7. The client is able to express an opinion on the benefits of the activities undertaken.

1. Client and therapist, sitting together in a circle
2. The room was comfortable and quiet

1. Tape recorder
2. Cassette
3. Tennis ball
4. Notebook and pen
5. Schedule patient activity

1. Group dynamics
2. Discussion and Q & A
3. Playing the role / simulation

Step activity
1. Preparation
a. Selecting the client as indicated
b. Make contracts with clients
c. Prepare equipment and meeting place

2. Orientation
At this stage the therapist do:
a. Give therapeutic greetings: greetings from therapists
b. Evaluation / validation: asking patients at this time
c. contract:
1) identifies the purpose of activities, which introduce self-own.
2) Explain the following rules
- If there are clients who will leave the group to ask for permission to the client
- Length of activity 45 minutes
- Each client follow up activities completed

3. stage of work
a. Describe the activity, ie cassette tape recorder is turned on and the ball will be circulated counter-clockwise (ie towards the left) and when the tape off the members of the group who held the ball introduce himself.
b. Turn on the tape recorder and tape the opposite tennis balls circulate clockwise.
c. When the tape off, members of the group that holds the ball can turn to mention: greetings, full name, nicknames, hobbies and origin started by therapists as an example.
d. Write nicknames on paper / board name and paste / use
e. Repeat the activity b, c, d until all members of the group gets a turn
f. Give credit to the success of each member of the group members applause.

Nursing Care Plan for Cancer

Nursing care plan for cancer is a guideline in providing care for cancer patients. And made reference to nurses to provide care for cancer patients. Nursing Care Plan for cancer, there are many types, depending on the type of cancer that occurs. For breast cancer, skin cancer, etc.. So expect any patients suffering from a cancer can be given optimal service.

Differentiated cancer based on tissue of origin. For mesodermal tissue that consists of connective tissue, bone, cartilage, fat, muscle to blood vessels called sarcoma.

Osteosarcoma, the bone cancer. And carcinoma is a cancer that is in the epithelial tissue, such as the mucous membranes and glands such as breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and lung cancer. Then myeloma on bone marrow cancers, while blastoma for blood cancers.

There is a term metastatic. Metastasis is the ability of cancer cells to move from one place to another. This switching capability that makes cancer so dangerous because it makes the cancer spread and invade multiple organs at once. Migration of cancer cells from one place to another can be through the blood vessels, lymph vessels, tissue sticking, and in the body cavity.

Regarding the treatment of cancer, there are three main treatment in patients with cancer, through surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Surgery is done if the cancer tumor is still small conditions.

Surgery is also not alone, but is usually accompanied by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. On radiotherapy, used laser light (X-rays) to kill cancer cells and is done only in part affected by cancer. It is intended to create damage in other tissues, while chemotherapy to destroy any remaining cancer cells in the body.

In the nursing care plan for cancer, nurses have a very important role, so that the healing process of patients, can take place smoothly. Nurse's role in providing support to patients by diagnosis.

Nurses also find out, psycho-social needs of patients and the spiritual. Nurses also must meet the fluid needs, and patient nutrition in addition to helping clients to succeed through the healing phase. Nurse roles are very important, described in detail in the nursing care for cancer.

Nursing interventions, is the handling of the patient based on conditions.

Nursing interventions, such as the condition of the patient based on the risk of infection, risk of bleeding, the risk of impaired tissue perfusion, fluid balance disorders, and other risks.

Professional nurses are needed in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. Important guidelines to realize that professional nurses and responsive in dealing with cancer.

Osteomalacia - Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

Osteomalacia, or soft bones, often develops because of a lack of vitamin D. It causes severe bone pain and muscle weakness. In Victorian times the condition often affected children and was called rickets, but today osteomalacia usually affects adults, especially the elderly and/or people of South Asian origin.

The causes of adult osteomalacia are varied, but ultimately result in a vitamin D deficiency:
  • Insufficient nutritional quantities or faulty metabolism of vitamin D or phosphorus
  • Renal tubular acidosis
  • Malnutrition during pregnancy
  • Malabsorption syndrome
  • Hypophosphatemia
  • Chronic renal failure
  • Tumor-induced osteomalacia
  • Long-term anticonvulsant therapy
  • Coeliac disease
  • Cadmium poisoning, Itai-itai disease

Symptoms of osteomalacia can include:
  • pain felt in your bones – usually felt in your legs, groin, knees and feet
  • muscle weakness – usually affects your thighs, shoulders and main trunk of your body
  • back pain
  • pain caused by slight cracks in the bone (partial fractures) – sometimes these cracks can turn into complete breaks (complete fractures)

As the condition gets worse, pain can be felt everywhere and any movement can be painful.

Osteomalacia in adults starts insidiously as aches and pains in the lumbar (lower back) region and thighs, spreading later to the arms and ribs. The pain is symmetrical, non-radiating and is accompanied by sensitivity in the involved bones. Proximal muscles are weak, and there is difficulty in climbing up stairs and getting up from a squatting position.

Due to demineralization bones become less rigid. Physical signs include deformities like triradiate pelvis and lordosis. The patient has a typical "waddling" gait. However, those physical signs may derive from a previous osteomalacial state, since bones do not regain their original shape after they become deformed.

Pathologic fractures due to weight bearing may develop. Most of the time, the only alleged symptom is chronic fatigue, while bone aches are not spontaneous but only revealed by pressure or shocks.

It differs from renal osteodystrophy, where the latter shows hyperphosphatemia.

Patients who have osteomalacia can take vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate supplements, depending on the individual case. For instance, people with intestinal malabsorption (the intestines cannot absorb nutrients or vitamins properly) may need to take larger quantities of vitamin D and calcium.

Other treatments to relieve or correct osteomalacia symptoms may include:
  • Wearing braces to reduce or prevent bone irregularities
  • Surgery to correct bone deformities (in severe cases)
  • Adequate exposure to sunlight