Nutrition Less than Body Requirements


Nutrition less than body requirements is the intake of nutrients insufficient to meet metabolic needs. (Nanda. 2005-2006)

Clinical Manifestations

The clinical manifestations or signs and symptoms of nutrition less than body requirements by nursing diagnosis handbook NIC-NOC include:

A. Subjective
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Abdominal pain with or without the disease.
  • Inability to feel for food.
  • Report changes in taste sensation.
  • Reported a lack of food.
  • Feeling full after eating.
B. Objective
  • Not interested in eating.
  • Diarrhea.
  • There is evidence of lack of food.
  • Excessive hair loss.
  • Hyperactive bowel sounds.
  • Lack of interest in food.
  • Sores, inflammation of the oral cavity.

1. Nursing history and diet.
  • Budget meals, favorite foods, meal times.
  • Is there a special diet that is done.
  • Is there a decrease and an increase in body weight and how long a period of time?
  • Is there a patient's physical status to Increasing diet such as burns and fever?
  • Is there a tolerance of food / beverages in particular?
2. Factors that influence diet
  • The health status
  • Culture and beliefs
  • Socioeconomic status.
  • Psychological factors.
  • Misinformation about food and dieting.
3. Physical Examination
  • Physical state: apathetic, lethargic
  • Weight loss: obese, lean muscle: flaksia, tone less, unable to work.
  • Nervous system: confusion, burning, decreased reflexes.
  • Function Gastrointestinal: anorexia, constipation, diarrhea, liver enlargement.
  • Cardiovascular: pulse rate more than 100 beats / min, abnormal rhythms, low blood pressure / high.
  • Hair: dull, dry, reddish, thin, cracked / broken.
  • Skin: Dry, pale, irritable, petechiae, no subcutaneous fat.
  • Lips: Dry, cracking, swelling, lesions, stomatitis, mucous membranes pale.
  • Gums: bleeding, inflammation.
  • Tongue: edema, hyperemesis.
  • Teeth: caries, pain, dirty.
  • Eyes: conjunctiva pale, dry, exotalmus, signs of infection.
  • Nails: brittle.

Interventions and Rational

1. Increase intake of food through:
  • Reducing interference noisy environments and others.
  • Give the medication before meals if indicated.
  • Keep patient privacy.
2. Keep the patient's mouth
3. Help the patient if it is not able to eat.
4. Serve foods that are easily digested, in warm, covered, and give a little
but seing.
5. Assess vital signs, sensory and bowel sounds.
6. Monitor laboratory results, such as glucose, electrolytes, albumin, hemoglobin, collaboration with physicians.
7. Provide health education about diet, calorie needs and nursing actions related to nutrition if the patient is using NGT.
8. Fluid / food is not over 150 cc one giving.
  • Specific ways to increase appetite.
  • Clean mouth Increasing appetite.
  • Helping patients eat.
  • Increase appetite and intake meal.
  • Help assess the patient's condition.
  • Monitor nutritional status.
  • Improving the knowledge that patients more cooperative.
  • Avoid aspiration

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